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The main difference between finding objects with your telescope visually and finding them with a CCD is that the camera takes the place of your eye.  Instead of seeing the telescope image in an eyepiece you see it on a computer screen.  The advantage of this system is that CCDs are far more sensitive than the human eye, so you can more easily see faint objects.  There are still some tricks, however, to finding targets and framing them properly in the CCD's field of view.  This section will guide you through the process of using CCDOPS to find and center celestial targets.

Exposure Setup

The first step is to begin taking a continuous sequence of exposures.  This will allow you to see what the telescope "sees".  With smaller CCD cameras or those using high-speed connections, such as USB 2.0, there will be only a short delay between each exposure.  With some CCDs there will be a longer delay, but this need not be a hindrance to finding objects and tips are given below to make using such CCDs easier.

Begin by clicking on the Focus button on the toolbar, or select Camera > Focus from the main menu.

Above:  The CCDOPS Toolbar.

Resolution should already be set to Auto under the Setup menu from having focused the telescope, but if it is not, click Setup in the toolbar, or select Camera > Setup from the main menu, and make sure Resolution is on Auto.  This bins the CCD chip 3x3 for more sensitivity and faster downloads.

The proper exposure time will depend on the CCD camera and telescope being used, and the object being imaged.  An 8" f/1.8 HyperStar SCT might need only a 1 second exposure to detect M51, whereas a 12.5" f/9 Ritchey-Chrétien might need a 10-second exposure to find a faint galaxy cluster.  Remember that at this point you don't need a great picture, you only need to be able to vaguely make out the target to get it into view.  In the Focus window, select an exposure time.  3 seconds is a good starting point unless you know you are imaging something especially bright like the Orion Nebula, in which case a 1-second exposure should suffice for just about any system.

Be sure Frame Size is set to Full so that the entire CCD field of view is displayed.  Update Mode should be Automatic in all cases except large-format, parallel-based CCDs which may require a while to download even in binned mode. In this case it is desirable to use Manual update mode allowing you to take another image only after making an adjustment to the telescope (if necessary).


Getting There

Find your target just as you normally would when observing visually.  Most telescopes used for CCD imaging are computer-controlled, so simply enter the object you wish to image.  While this is vastly easier than having to hunt down the target the old-fashioned way, there are still some tricks necessary to getting the subject properly framed (see below).  If you are finding the object manually, do as you would normally with a finderscope and/or Telrad to hunt down the object.  The hard part is finding the object with a small field of view and a delay between exposures.  While some objects are easy to find, nothing will give you an appreciation for goto telescopes like trying to CCD image without one!


The "Frame" Nebula

So, suppose you have decided to image NGC2024, the Flame Nebula in Orion.  This is a good example of finding and framing an object.  Finding is easy, even without a goto telescope as the Flame Nebula sits right next to Alnitak, the easternmost star in Orion's belt.  Due to its faintness, finding it requires a longer exposure than, say, the Orion Nebula, but it is easier than something very faint like the nearby Horsehead Nebula (see following section).

The key to imaging the Flame Nebula, however, is proper framing.  What makes the Flame a challenging target is the same thing that made it easy to locate:  Alnitak.  This 2nd-magnitude star is so close to the Flame Nebula that keeping it in the image can cause its brilliance to drown out the faint glow of the Flame. 

Suppose that your goto telescope has plopped NGC2024 right in the middle of CCD field.  While normally this would be great, in this case it means that Alnitak is glaring away from one side of the image. 

You can move the telescope either with the hand controller or by using the direction buttons in the Focus window of CCDOPS (which requires having the telescope control cable hooked up from the CCD camera to the telescope mount).  Which direction the buttons move the object in the image is dependent on the orientation of the CCD, the type of telescope, the type of mount, the position of the mount, whether it is the second Tuesday of the month, and the whims of the Fates.  Okay, actually there is a way to figure it out, but your best bet is to just push a button and see what happens.  Remember (or better yet, write down) which way each button moves the image; assuming your imaging setup is basically the same each time, you will pretty quickly learn what does what.

In the case of the Flame Nebula, move Alnitak out of the field of view while leaving the nebula itself in sight.  You are now ready to image.  Similar techniques apply for framing objects which are either off-center due to the telescope's pointing (or your pointing, if you have a non-goto scope) or which are extended more in one direction and needs to be intentionally offset.  The Orion Nebula is a good example of a necessary-offset object.  Goto scopes will generally center the bright core of the nebula, the region around the Trapezium star cluster, but much of the nebula actually sits off to the southwest of this core.


Okay, What About the Really, Really Faint Stuff?

The Horsehead Nebula.  You looked for it in your first 6" Dobsonian, couldn't see it, bought an 8" telescope, no luck, moved up to a 10", nothin' doin', tried a 12" belonging to a friend, not a chance, looked through a 20" monster scope at a star party in the darkest place on Earth, using special filters, and finally -- barely -- glimpsed the stupid thing.  Now, realizing how much more efficient CCD imaging is than the eye, you wish to capture this elusive target with your new camera.  Finding the Orion Nebula was a cinch to find with a 1-second exposure, and the Flame Nebula was clear in 3 seconds, even with Alnitak in the way.  But the Horsehead might not appear until you've taken a 15-second shot.  And it is in the lower right hand corner of the field of view.  How to center it up without taking all night doing it?

Take a single exposure using either the Focus mode (in Manual update mode so only a single shot is taken) or using the Grab function.  Set the exposure long enough to see the faint subject you are looking for.

Above:  A 30-second exposure clearly shows the Horsehead Nebula.  Note the bright stars which can be used to center the object in a short exposure.

Now, go back to the Focus mode, set the exposure to something of more tolerable duration -- say, a second or so -- and begin taking a continuous sequence of exposures as you would to center a bright target (make sure Focus is back in Automatic update mode).  By moving the stars you noted above to the appropriate positions in the image, you can easily frame a dim subject without even seeing it.

Above:  Move the bright stars noted in the original long exposure to their appropriate positions.

Now a long exposure should show the target in the correct location.


Next, Basic Imaging...

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